Minggu, 30 Oktober 2011

The Gerund

              Kali ini yang akan gue posting adalah grammar –The gerund- hal ini juga dibahas dalam pembahasan latihan soal TOEFL. Seperti biasa,,, kalo kalian mau donlud versi .pdf. bisa langsung scroll ke bawah halaman posting ini.... :D

The Gerund
Gerunds and infinitives are verb forms that can take the place of a noun in a sentence. The following guidelines and lists will help you figure out whether a gerund or infinitive is needed.
Use
-ing form used as a noun
Form
infinitive + -ing
Examples
Going to parties is fun.
I enjoy reading.
Gerund is subject
Gerund is object

Gerund after prepositions (adjectives)
We use the Gerund after prepositions.
adjective + preposition
We use the Gerund after the following phrases:
afraid of
They are afraid of losing the match.
angry about/at
Pat is angry about walking in the rain.
bad at
good at
John is good at working in the garden.
clever at
He is clever at skateboarding.
crazy about
The girl is crazy about playing tennis.
disappointed about/at
He is disappointed about seeing such a bad report.
excited about
We are excited about making our own film.
famous for
Sandy is famous for singing songs.
fed up with
I'm fed up with being treated as a child.
fond of
Hannah is fond of going to parties.
glad about
She is glad about getting married again.
happy about/at
The children are not happy about seeing a doctor.
interested in
Are you interested in writing poems?
keen on
Joe is keen on drawing.
proud of
She is proud of riding a snowboard.
sick of
We're sick of sitting around like this.
sorry about/for
He's sorry for eating in the lesson.
tired of
I'm tired of waiting for you.
used to
She is used to smoking.
worried about
I'm worried about making mistakes.

Gerund after prepositions (verbs)
We use the Gerund after prepositions.
verb + preposition
Exception: to
Here we use the phrase:
looking forward to + Gerund
Example:
I'm looking forward to seeing you soon.
We use the Gerund after the following phrases:
accuse of
They were accused of breaking into a shop.
agree with
agree with playing darts.
apologize for
They apologize for being late.
believe in
She doesn't believe in getting lost in the wood.
blame for
The reporter is blamed for writing bad stories.
complain about
She complains about bullying.
concentrate on
Do you concentrate on reading or writing?
congratulate sb. on
I wanted to congratulate you on making such a good speech.
cope with
He is not sure how to cope with getting older.
decide against
They decided against stealing the car.
depend on
Success may depend on becoming more patient.
dream about/of
Sue dreams of being a pop star.
feel like
They feel like going to bed.
get used to
You must get used to working long hours.
insist on
The girls insisted on going out with Mark.
look forward to
I'm looking forward to seeing you soon.
prevent sb. from sth.
How can I prevent Kate from working in this shop?
rely on sth.
He doesn't rely on winning in the casino.
succeed in
How then can I succeed in learning chemistry?
specialize in
The firm specialized in designing websites.
stop sb. from
stopped Andrew from smoking.
talk about/of
They often talk about travelling to New Zealand.
think of
Frank thinks of playing chess.
warn sb. against
We warned them against using this computer.

worry about
The patient worries about having the check-up.

Gerund after special verbs
We use the Gerund after the following verbs:
admit
He admitted having driven too fast.
avoid
They avoid going on holiday on Saturdays.
carry on
If we carry on sleeping so badly, we may need help.
consider
Ralph is considering buying a new house.
delay
delayed telling Max the news.
deny
She denies reading the book.
dislike
We dislike reading poems.
can't help
He couldn't help falling in love with her.
enjoy
enjoy playing chess.
finish
They finished working in the garden.
give up
Susan gives up playing ice-hockey.
imagine
He imagined driving a new car.
include
Your responsibility includes taking reservations on the phone.
involve
The project will involve growing plants.
justify
I cannot justify paying $100 for this ticket.
keep (on)
They keep on running.
mention
Did Alex ever mention playing baseball?
mind
I don't mind sleeping on the couch.
miss
They miss playing with their friends.
practise
She practised playing hockey.
regret
Do you regret having mentioned it?
risk
You risk catching a cold.
suggest
She suggested flying to Cairo.




Gerund after special phrases
We use the Gerund after the following phrases:
to be busy
He is busy reading the paper.
couldn't help
She couldn't help eating another apple.
don't mind
don't mind telling them my opinion.
feel like
We feel like having a cup of tea.
how about
How about walking home instead of taking the car?
it's (no) good
It's no good talking to this girl.
it's no use
It's no use talking to the headmaster.
spend one's time
They spend their time reading.
there's no
There's no cheating anymore.
there's no point
There's no point in complaining further.
what about
What about going to the zoo?
worth
The book is worth reading.

Gerund after prepositions
We use the Gerund after the following prepositions:
after
After having a shower, I waited for Steven.
before
The tablet must not be taken before getting up in the morning.
by
I manage it by working much longer than 40-hour weeks.
in spite of
In spite of studying a lot he didn't pass the exams.
on
She insisted on calling her sister.
without
He told the joke without laughing.


Gerund or Progressive/Continuous
Both forms end in -ing. Nevertheless it is easy to find out whether it is a Gerund or a Progressive form.
Progressive tenses
These tenses are formed with von to be and the infinitive + - ing.
sentences
tense
He is reading a book.
Present Progressive
He was reading a book.
Past Progressive
He has been reading a book for three hours.
Present Perfect Progressive
He had been reading a book before Mary came in.
Past Perfect Progressive
He will be reading a book when I get home.
will-future Progressive
He will have been reading a book.
Future Perfect Progressive
He would be reading a book if he had time.
Conditional Progressive
He would have been reading a book if he had had time.
Conditional Perfect Progressive
A book is being read.
Present Progressive - Passive
A book was being read.
Past Progressive - Passive
Gerund
The Gerund is formed only with infinitive + - ing.
sentence
Reading books is great fun.
He likes reading books.
He is looking forward to reading books at the weekend.
He is keen on reading books.
He is used to reading books.
What about reading books?
He likes the idea of reading books.
After reading the book, he went to bed.
I remember having read this book. - Passiv

Gerund and Infinitive (no difference in meaning)
We use the Gerund or the Infinitive after the following verbs:
begin
He began talking.
He began to talk.
continue
They continue smoking.
They continue to smoke.
hate
Do you hate working on Saturdays?
Do you hate to work on Saturdays?
like
like swimming.
like to swim.
love
She loves painting.
She loves to paint.
prefer
Pat prefers walking home.
Pat prefers to walk home.
start
They start singing.
They start to sing.

We use the Gerund or the Infinitive after the following verbs. There are two possible structures after these verbs.
Gerund: verb + -ing
Infinitive: verb + person + to-infinitive
advise
They advise walking to town.
They advise us to walk to town.
allow
They do not allow smoking here.
They do not allow us to smoke here.
encourage
They encourage doing the test.
They encourage us to do the test.
permit
They do not permit smoking here.
They do not permit us to smoke here.
We use the following structures with the word recommend:
recommend
They recommend walking to town.
They recommend that we walk to town.

Gerund and Infinitive - difference in meaning
Some verbs have different meaning. (when used with Gerund or Infinitive)

GERUND
INFINITIVE
forget
He'll never forget spending so much money on his first computer.
Don't forget to spend money on the tickets.


GERUND
INFINITIVE
go on
Go on reading the text.
Go on to read the text.


GERUND
INFINITIVE
mean
You have forgotten your homework again. That means phoning your mother.
meant to phone your mother, but my mobile didn't work.


GERUND
INFINITIVE
remember
remember switching off the lights when I went on holiday.
Remember to switch off the lights when you go on holiday.


GERUND
INFINITIVE
stop
Stop reading the text.
Stop to read the text.


GERUND
INFINITIVE
try
Why don't you try running after the dog?
I tried to run after the dog, but I was too slow.

The Infinitive with to
after:
the first
Gagarin was the first to fly in a spaceship.
the last
Peter was the last to watch the film.
the next
He is the next to get his passport.

after:
adjectives
I'm happy to be here.
It's better not to smoke.

after:
certain verbs
(agree, choose, forget, hope, learn, promise, regret, want, …)
I learn to drive a car.

after:
question words
I don't know what to say.
Can you tell me how to get to the bus stop?

after:
want/would like
I want you to help me.

verb + object + to-infinitive
I helped my dad to clean the car.
NOTE!!!
I want to help you.
I want you to help me.

The Infinitive without to
after auxiliaries/modals
can
He can run very fast.
could
As a boy he could run very fast.
may
may fly to Africa this summer.
might
might fly to Africa this summer.
must
must go now.
mustn't
You mustn't smoke here.
needn't
You needn't go.
shall
We shall sing a song.
should
We should sing a song.
will
She will cook a meal for his birthday.
would
She would cook a meal for his birthday.
after to do
do
don't know.
after the following expressions:
had better
You had better clean up your room.
would rather
Susan would rather study for her exam tomorrow.
would sooner
would sooner read a book than watch this film.
why not
Why not ask your neighbour for help?
why should we
Why should we go by car?
why should we not
Why should we not go by car?
after verbs of perception + object (action has finished):
feel
She feels the rain fall on her face.
hear
heard Peter sing a song.
notice
Mandy noticed the boy climb the tree.
see
They saw him climb up the roof.
watch
He watched the thieves steal a car.
after let + object:
let
Sandy let her child go out alone.
Mother let her daughter decide on her own.
let's
Let's go for a walk through the park.
after make + object:
make
She made Peggy and Samantha clean the room.
 taken from www.english-hilfen/en
The Gerund

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